Consider a matrix having lines and columns. The contents of the matrix is filled with 0 or 1 based on the following rules:

1. First line is full of zeros except the central element (position for 0 based index as in C++, C#, Java etc, and position for Matlab, Pascal etc) wich is 1. For the first line will be: 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

2. The line is computed based on line . Each element is computed based on the three upper neighbours. Thus for each combination of the possible values for upper neighbours we need to specify a value: 0 or 1

000 ->

001 ->

010 ->

011 ->

100 ->

101 ->

110 ->

111 ->

where can be 0 or 1.The array is the base 2 representation of a number between 0 and 255.

For simplicity the first elements of each row are always set to 0 because for those elements only two out of three upper neighbours are known.

Based on this rule different patterns can be generated. For example if and the following pattern is generated:

Here is the Matlab code for generating patterns:

function [] = automata()
n = 261;
m_in = zeros(n, 2*n+1);
rule = [0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0]; %rule 30
%rule = [0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0]; %rule 90
m_out = generate(m_in, rule);
imshow(1 - m_out);
%---------------------------------------------------------------------
function [o] = generate(m, rule)
problemSize = size(m, 1);
%starting alue
m(1, problemSize+1) = 1;
mid = problemSize+1;
%for each row
for row = 2:problemSize-1
%for each column
for col = mid -(row-1) : mid +(row-1)
i1 = m(row-1, col-1);
i2 = m(row-1, col);
i3 = m(row-1, col+1);
%based on te values from the previous row
%and based in the rule generate the values in
%current row
n = i1*4+i2*2+i3;
m(row, col) = rule(8-n);
end
end
o=m;

A particular interesting pattern is generated by rule 30. This is how it looks for :

Compared to other rules, a chaotic pattern is generated (see the right side of the result). Rule 30 shows that using simple evolution rules, and starting from something basic (a single value of 1 in this case) something complex can be generated.

This lead to the following idea: what if the universe was generated in a similar way; A simple initial state and a simple rule that evoluates in time and lead to the complexity that we see around?

Source: Stephen Wolfram, “A New Kind of Science”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_eC14GonZnU

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Rule 110 rules🙂

http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2002/oct/24/is-the-universe-a-computer/